Japanese Edo Period and Samurai Culture inspired painting. The Sakoku was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate. For a period of 265 years during the Edo period (from 1603 to 1868), relations and trade between Japan and other countries were limited, and nearly all foreign nationals were banned. During this period of isolation, Japan cultivated cultural touchstones that persist to this day. This pericod was difficult for the lower classes. The Great Wave by Hokusai (represented in the blues of the painting)—haiku poetry, kabuki drama, wood-block prints, the tea ceremony, landscape gardening, and the cultivation of bonsai trees—date to this period of Japanese history.